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Farm animal transport journey times

When transported in connection with an economic activity (in other words a business or trade) horses (except registered horses*), cattle, sheep, goats and pigs must not be transported for more than eight hours unless the additional requirements for vehicles carrying out long journeys are met. However, a single journey by road in the UK of up to 12 hours continuous duration is permitted in order to reach the final place of destination without the need for the vehicle to meet the additional provisions required for longer journeys.

[*Registered domestic horses are those registered with a recognised breed society or companies like the British Horse Database at Weatherbys. 'Registered domestic Equidae' does not simply mean those with horse passports.]

At the final place of destination animals must be unloaded, watered and rested for at least 48 hours. Approved livestock markets can be places of departure if the animals have travelled to the market less than 100km or they have been there for at least six hours with sufficient bedding and water. If not, then the time spent travelling to the market must be added to the journey from the market to establish the journey time.

In the guide
'Journey' definition
What are the principal requirements?
What is the maximum permitted journey time for livestock by road?
Derogations for means of transport by road on journeys under 12 hours
How does a livestock market affect journey times?
Penalties

'Journey' definition
'Journey' means the entire operation of transport from 'place of departure' to 'place of destination' including any unloading accommodation and loading occurring at intermediate points in the journey.

A 'place of departure' is the place at which the animal is first loaded on to a means of transport, provided that it has been accommodated there for at least 48 hours. European Union (EU) approved markets and assembly centres may also be regarded as places of departure (see 'How does a livestock market affect journey times?' below). A 'place of destination' is the place at which an animal is unloaded from a means of transport, and either accommodated for at least 48 hours prior to the time of departure or slaughtered.

What are the principal requirements?
The welfare of animals during transport is protected by EU legislation on the protection of animals in transport and related operations.

Anyone transporting vertebrate animals on journeys of over 65km (approximately 40 miles) as part of an economic activity must hold a valid transporter authorisation to do so. Anyone transporting cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, domestic equidae or poultry by road over 65km is required to hold valid certificates of competence for drivers and attendants of road vehicles.

All persons who take animals on a journey, whatever the length, should always apply the following good transport practice:

What is the maximum permitted journey time for livestock by road?
Eight hours, except as set out below. This applies to horses, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.

Transporters of vertebrate animals carrying out journeys of over eight hours by road will, in addition, have to have their vehicles or livestock containers inspected and approved according to specific criteria such as on-vehicle drinking systems, ventilation systems and temperature monitoring. Where vehicles meet all the additional provisions and have been inspected and approved, journey times may be extended as shown in the attached document:

Journey times and rest periods for farmed animals and unregistered horses (PDF 134KB)

Different provisions apply when the means of transport is by or includes air and/or sea.

Derogations for means of transport by road on journeys under 12 hours
A single journey in the UK of up to 12 hours continuous duration is permitted in order to reach the final place of destination without the need for the vehicle to meet the additional provisions required for longer journeys.

How does a livestock market affect journey times?
Livestock markets approved by Defra can be places of departure if the animals to be transported have either:

In these circumstances a new journey begins.

If the animals have travelled over 100km (60 miles), or have not been in the market for over six hours, then the time spent travelling to the market must be added to the journey from the market to establish the journey time.

Penalties
Any person who contravenes the Welfare of Animals (Transport) (England) Order 2006 commits an offence against the Animal Health Act 1981 and as such each offence attracts a fine of up to £5,000 and/or six months' imprisonment on summary conviction.

Please note
This leaflet is not an authoritative interpretation of the law and is intended only for guidance. Any legislation referred to, while still current, may have been amended from the form in which it was originally enacted. Please contact us for further information.

Relevant legislation
Animal Health Act 1981
EU Regulation (EC) No 1/2005 on the protection of animals during transport and related operations
Welfare of Animals (Transport) (England) Order 2006

Last reviewed/updated: October 2013

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